During the Stalin era, Kazakhstan was known for its gulags (labor camps) and deportation sites for Poles and Chechens, among others.

An excerpt from the article 32 facts about Kazakhstan

The gulags (gulags) were a system of forced labor camps in the USSR in which prisoners included both criminal offenders and people considered socially undesirable or politically suspect. The gulags were dissolved by a decision of the USSR Interior Ministry in 1960 but the last prisoners did not leave the camps until 1987.