The people living in what is now Uganda at the beginning of our era (mainly Bantu people) led a sedentary lifestyle and engaged in agriculture.

An excerpt from the article 32 facts about Uganda

In the 1st century, these peoples were subjugated by the Nilotes who came from the north. In the 10th-15th centuries, the Kitwara state was established in these areas, the peak of its development was in the 14th-15th centuries.

After the collapse of Kitwara, many tribal states were established in what is now Uganda, the most important of which were the kingdoms of Ankole, Bunjoro, Toro, and Buganda. In the 19th century, Buganda assumed hegemony there.