The oldest preserved artifacts from what is now Slovakia date back to 270.000 BC (early Paleolithic).

An excerpt from the article 37 facts about Slovakia

They are located near Nové Město nad Váhom and are ancient tools made of flint. Stone tools found in the Prevot cave in Bojnice date back to the Middle Paleolithic period. The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal skull (around 200.000 BC) discovered near the village of Ganovce in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists found prehistoric human skeletons in this area, as well as numerous objects and traces of the Gravettian culture.