Republic of South Africa

South Africa has some of the world's oldest archaeological sites and human fossils.

An excerpt from the article 34 facts about Republic of South Africa

Archaeologists have discovered such fossils in a series of caves in Gauteng province. This area, included on the UNESCO World Heritage List, has been called the "Cradle of Humanity". These sites include Sterkfontein - one of the richest places in the world for hominin fossils, Swartkrans, Gondolin Cave, Kromdraai, Coopers Cave, and Malapa. The first hominin fossil discovered in Africa was a Taung baby in 1924. Taken together, the discoveries in South Africa suggest that various species of hominids (a family of primates in the anthropoid superfamily) have existed there for about three million years, starting with Australopithecus africanus.