Mount Tambora

Facts about Mount Tambora

We found 15 facts about Mount Tambora


Mount Tambora is one of the tallest volcanoes in Indonesia. Although dormant for many centuries, it is known for the deadliest eruption in modern history which occurred in 1815. The aftermath of the eruption was felt for many following years worldwide, although it also inspired various artists and inventors.

Mount Tambora
It is located in the Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara.
It is an active stratovolcano.
Stratovolcanoes are characterized by a conical summit and are made of several layers of hardened lava and tephra. They are also considered the deadliest of all types of volcanoes.
It has been dormant until 1812.
Several small eruptions occurred prior to the deadly eruption in 1815.
It is best known for the deadliest eruption in human history.
It lasted from April 5th to April 17th, 1815. The death toll is estimated at over 71,000 people.
Approximately 12,000 deaths occurred as a direct result of eruptions.
Over 50,000 people fell victim to famine, bronchial diseases, and tsunamis caused by eruptions. All vegetation in the region was killed by the lava flows, and the falling ash caused various breathing problems among survivors of the eruption.
The 1815 eruption is classified as VEI-7.
VEI—Volcanic Explosivity Index—a 1–8 scale of the explosivity of volcanic eruptions describes the 1815 eruption as super-colossal.

Among eruptions recorded in modern history, such as Cumbre Vieja (2021), Vesuvius (79), Mount St. Helens (1980), Krakatoa (1883), or Mount Pinatubo (1991), Mount Tambora eruption was so far the only VEI-7.
The April 5th eruption was heard within 1,400 kilometers range.
The British troops stationed in Java, an Indonesian island, mistaken the sound of the explosion for cannon fire. They were dispatched to investigate and repel an attack on a nearby post thought to be in progress.
The April 10th eruption, more violent than the previous one, wiped out the village of Tambora.
The streams of lava erupting from the volcano were recorded by witnesses as "liquid fire".
The eruptions lowered the summit of Mount Tambora from 4,300 meters to 2,851 meters, leaving a 6-kilometer-wide caldera in its place.
Before the eruption, Mount Tambora was the highest peak in the Indonesian archipelago.
The 1815 eruptions dispersed 150 cubic kilometers of pumice, ash, and aerosols into the atmosphere.
An estimated 60 megatons of sulfur were diffused during the eruption.
The amount of ash dispersed during the eruption covered South East Asia in darkness for seven days.
The 1815 eruption caused the volcanic winter.
The year 1816 was called a year without summer because the volcanic ash prevented the sun’s rays from penetrating the atmosphere.
The global temperature within the next few years dropped by 0.4—0.7 degrees Celsius.
The year without summer inspired the British novelist Mary Shelley to write “Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus.”
The 1815 eruption led to the invention of the bicycle.
The volcanic winter of 1816 affected the whole world. The eruption of Mount Tambora covered Earth with an impenetrable blanket of ash, killing fruit trees, crops, and cattle. Prices went up over 700%, and thus people found it difficult to feed horses, the main means of transportation in the 19th century. This prompted a German inventor, Karl von Drais, to construct a transport machine that enabled people to travel without the use of horses.
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