Facts about Great Pyramid of Giza
Pyramid of Khufu
It was built by the sweat of a hundred (or three hundred and twenty) thousand workers, an unimaginable engineering and logistical task. Granite blocks weighing 80 tons used for some of the structural elements of the Great Pyramid were transported over 800 kilometers by the Nile.
1The Great Pyramid was built around 2560 BC.
It was intended as a tomb for Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) dating back to the 4th Dynasty during the Old Kingdom.
2It is located in Egypt on a plateau in Giza. It is part of the Memphis necropolis.
Memphis was an ancient Egyptian city located in the Nile delta on its western bank. It was the capital of the Old Kingdom.
3It is also referred to as the "Pyramid of Khufu" and the "Pyramid of Cheops".
4It took about 20 years to build the Great Pyramid of Giza.
According to ancient historians like Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo.
5The pyramid is built with about 2.3 million limestone blocks, most of which weigh 2.5 tons.
The technological processes used during construction has not been explained to this day. According to calculations, to build the Pyramid of Khufu workers used:
- 5,5 million tons of limestone,
- 8 thousand tons of Aswan granite,
- 500 thousand tons of mortar
6Total mass of the pyramid is approximately 6 million tons.
The side walls of the pyramid are inclined at an angle of 51° 52′.
7It is believed that the architect of the pyramid of Cheops was Hemiunu.
Hemiunu was Cheops' nephew and also his vizier (the highest official in the court of the pharaoh). His name Egyptologists translate as great and wise.
His tomb is located in the vicinity of the Great Pyramid.
8The Great Gallery, a corridor 8.53 m high and 46.63 m long, led to the King's Chamber.
At the entrance to the Great Gallery there is a horizontal shaft leading to the descending corridor and a passage to the Queen's Chamber. This passage is 1.1 m high and only before the chamber itself it rises to 1.73 m.
9The chambers inside the pyramid of Cheops are covered with blocks of granite that weigh up to 80 tons.
10The pyramid was clad mostly with the no longer extant Tura limestone, which gave it a bright and shimmering hue.
A powerful earthquake in 1303 loosened and knocked down many of the cladding stones, which were then transported by order of the Mameluke sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan to Cairo in 1356, where they were used to build structures within the city.
The facing stones were also largely looted in the early 19th century on the orders of Kedah Muhammad Ali and used in the construction of the Muhammad Ali Mosque also known as the Alabaster Mosque.
The facing stones can be found incorporated into the walls of buildings throughout Cairo.