Facts about Moon

We found 20 facts about Moon

The only natural satellite of the Earth

We call it the silver globe. It has stimulated human imagination for centuries and was ubiquitous in folk stories and legends. It was only in the second half of the last century that man managed to set foot on it. It was one of the greatest civilizational achievements of humanity. Currently, the Moon is the subject of intensive research conducted by various space agencies. It is planned that humans will return to its surface and establish a permanent base there in the 2020s.

The moon was formed about 4527 billion years ago, or about 30 to 50 million years after the formation of the solar system.
There are many theories about the formation of the Moon, but the most probable is that in the early days of the Solar System, the proto-Earth collided with a celestial body the size of Mars, and this impact generated enough energy to throw enough material into Earth's orbit to form the Moon.
It is the fifth largest moon in the solar system.

In size, it is second only to Ganymede, Titan, Callisto, and Io.

The Moon moves around the Earth in an ellipse with an eccentricity of 0.0554, therefore its distance from the Earth varies from 363.104 km to 405.696 km.

The moment of maximum approach to the Earth is called perigee and the moment of greatest distance is called apogee.

The diameter of the Moon is 3474 km, which means it is approximately 1/4 of the diameter of the Earth.
The density of the Moon is on average 3346,4 kg/m3.

It is therefore the second densest moon in the Solar System, second only to the moon Io.

The Moon's core consists of a solid part made mainly of iron and a semi-liquid part surrounding it.

The solid core has a diameter of 240 km and the semi-liquid core has a diameter of about 330 km.

The Moon's magnetic field is over 100 times weaker than the Earth's and ranges from 1 to 100 nanotesla.

It is not dipolar, so it is assumed that its source is not the nucleus but the crust.

The period when the moon orbits the Earth is called a sidereal month, and it lasts 27,3 days.
The average time between new moons is 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 3 seconds. We call this period the synodic month.

It is longer than the sidereal month because in the process of illuminating the moon's disk, we must take into account the movement of the Moon itself, as well as the Earth and the Sun.

The Moon always faces the Earth with the same side.

This is because our natural satellite is in synchronous rotation with the Earth. A long time ago, the moon rotated faster, so you could admire its entire surface from the surface of our planet, but due to tidal movements, its rotational speed decreased and remains at its current level.

Despite its synchronous rotation, the Moon is constantly tilted to one side or the other.

Such deviations are called librations and thanks to them it is possible to observe as much as 59 percent of the surface of the silver globe from Earth.

The Moon has a residual atmosphere whose pressure is 3×10-15 bar.

Its entire atmosphere weighs only 10 tons.

The Moon's atmosphere consists of 25 percent helium, 25 percent neon, 23percent hydrogen, 20 percent argon and residual amounts of methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide.
The crushed and fragmented rock material that covers the Moon's surface is called regolith.

The thickness of the regolith cover in sea areas ranges from 3 - 5 m and in the highlands 10 - 20 m.

The surface of the Moon is littered with impact craters because it does not have an atmosphere thick enough to destroy pieces of rock heading towards it.

The largest crater on its surface is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, it is 2500 km in diameter and 13 km deep.

The Moon is so far the only celestial body on which humans have landed.

The first successful landing on the Moon took place on July 20, 1969, at 21:17 CET. Shortly after landing on the silver globe, American astronaut Neil Armstrong transmitted a message to Earth: "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.”

Up to 14.000 square kilometers of the Moon's surface may remain in perpetual shadow.

Water is most likely to be present in these places.

The other side of the Moon is called the far side, not the "dark side" as some say, because each part of our satellite is darkened for exactly the same period.
Selenographic coordinates are used to determine coordinates on the lunar surface.
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