Facts about Stromboli volcano
The volcano has been active for several thousand years.
Because of its incessant activity, dating back to ancient times, Stromboli volcano has been described as far back as the Roman Empire. Often spewing clouds of smoke, the volcanic cone was visible from afar and made navigation in the Mediterranean easier, which is why it was often called the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean".
1Stromboli volcano is located at Stromboli Island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The island lies about 64.5 km (40.1 mi) off the northern coast of Sicily. Together with sixteen surrounding islands, it forms the Aeolian Islands archipelago. The archipelago consists of 7 large and 10 small islands of volcanic origin.
2The island of Stromboli is the fourth largest in terms of surface area among all Aeolian Islands.
It has an area of 12.6 km2 (4.9 sq mi) and rises up to 926 m (3.038 ft) above sea level.
3Despite the volcanic eruptions, Stromboli Island is inhabited by about 600 people.
The fertile volcanic soil on Stromboli's slopes is favorable for growing grapevines. Tourism is also very popular on the island.
4It is one of three active volcanoes in Italy.
Most of the time there are only minor eruptions, but every few years there are more serious eruptions. The last major eruption of the volcano took place in 2019.
5It is estimated that volcanic eruptions have been occurring continuously for about several thousand years.
Volcanologists estimate that the period of activity may have begun between 3000 and 1000 BC.
6In volcanology, there is a special type of eruption called a strombolian eruption.
The name is derived from the volcano, of course, and it is characterized by mild eruptions, with more violent eruptions occurring very rarely. Strombolian eruptions are capable of ejecting cinders, lava bombs, and lapilli to heights of several dozen to several hundred meters. In the Volcanic Explosivity Index, which has an open-ended scale (with magnitude 8 recorded on Earth to date), strombolian eruptions are classified as having a magnitude of 1 to 2. Another characteristic of strombolian eruptions is regular explosion intervals that vary from seconds to minutes. Lava flows in strombolian eruptions are more viscous but short-lasting.
7Stromboli volcano is a stratovolcano (composite volcano).
Stratovolcanoes are cone-shaped mountains composed of many layers of lava and other pyroclastic materials that build up on top of each other. Like cider cone volcanoes, stratovolcanoes have steep slopes.
8The volcano is composed of rhyolites, basalts and andesites, and volcanic tuffs.
9Initially, the Stromboli volcano was located about 3 km (1.86 mi) northeast of the present peak.
These first eruptions, dated back to 200 thousand years ago, are responsible for the formation of Stromboli Island. A remnant of the former activity of the original volcano is a small island northeast of Stromboli - Strombolicchio.
10Strombolicchio is in fact a volcanic plug - a hardened magma that filled the ancient volcano's vent. Erosion has caused the terrain around the vent to disappear, but a strong and enduring lava neck proudly rises above the waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea, reminding us of a long-gone volcanic mountain.
In Italian, "Strombolicchio" means "little Stromboli." On the top of this small island there is now a lighthouse, which can be reached by climbing over two hundred steps.