Australia has been isolated from the rest of the world for a long time, hence its unique and unparalleled flora and fauna. It is a home for aborigines, the oldest civilization on Earth. One of the most dangerous countries, primarily due to its fauna, attracts thousands of people every year.
The name Australia derives from the Latin – Terra Australis – which translates as “southern land”.
It is the only continent covered entirely by a single country.
It has a population of 25 million people.
Due to the vast uninhabited area of the country, the population density is only 3,3 people per kilometer.
The official name of the country is the Commonwealth of Australia.
Formally, the head of state is King Charles III of the United Kingdom but is represented by the governor-general.
It is the sixth-largest country in the world.
It covers an area of 7,6 million square kilometers.
The capital city of Australia is Canberra.
The population of the capital is about 450,000 people.
90% of Australians live on the coast.
The population settled mainly along the coastline because of huge deserts in the center of the country.
The Great Barrier Reef is located off the northeast coast of Australia. It is the largest ecosystem on earth.
James Cook discovered it on June 11, 1770. It was previously known to the indigenous inhabitants of Australia.
During winter, the country’s area covered by snow is larger than Switzerland’s.
Sydney is the largest city in Australia.
It is populated by 5,3 million people.
The world’s longest fence is located in Australia.
The Diego Fence is 5,614 kilometers long and 180 centimeters high. It was built between 1880 and 1885 to protect grazing sheep from dingo dogs. It has reduced the loss of sheep, but since the 1990s, some dingo dogs can get through the holes found in the fence.
10 out of 15 most venomous snakes live in Australia.
It is also home to many highly venomous spiders.
83% of mammals, 89% of reptiles, 90% of fish, and 93% of amphibians living in Australia are endemic.
The reason is the continent’s very long geological isolation.
There are two species of monotremes in Australia that act as an interface between reptiles and mammals.
Monotremes are oviparous, and their digestive system, reproductive and excretory systems have a shared outlet.
The most characteristic representatives of Australian fauna are koalas and kangaroos.
There are more than 150 million sheep in Australia.
It means that there are six animals per capita.
Aboriginal civilization is the oldest on Earth. It is estimated that aborigines have lived in Australia for about 40 – 60 thousand years.
About 25% of Australians were born in another country.
There are no active volcanoes in Australia.
This makes it the only such continent on the planet.
The island of Tasmania has one of the cleanest air in the world.
There are about 60 separate wine regions in Australia.